Monday, April 23, 2012


Stephen Andrew Missick, an Iraq War Veteran, is the author and illustrator of the "Hammer of God" a comic book series that tells the story of Judas Maccabee and the first Hanukkah. He is also the author and illustrator of "The Ennead: The Story of Osiris, Isis and Horus" from ancietn Egyptian mythology and wrote and illustrated "Christ the Man." Stephen Missick lives and grew up in the Houston area.


COMICPALOOZA will be on Memorial Day weekend.

New Teaching "King of Israel"

Jesus: The Jewish Messiah



Hidden Treasures and Intercultural Encounters: Studies on East Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia (orientalia - patristica - oecumenica) Editors, Dietmar W. Winkler and Li Tang

East Syriac Christianity spread outside the Roman Empire as a result of the missions carried out by the "Church of the East", formerly known as "Nestorian Church". This volume contains the most recent cutting edge research on this very Church in China and Central Asia. World-renowned scholars from universities and institutions in China, India, Europe and North America contributed to the study of this fascinating chapter of the history of Christianity. They come from various disciplines such as Religious and Ecclesiastical History, Philology (Sinology, Syrology), Archeology, Theology, and Central Asiatic Studies. This volume is a collection of expanded papers presented by a variety of international and interdisciplinary scholars at the second international conference on early Christianity in Central Asia and China. The conference was held in Salzburg in 2006 and focused on the so-called "Nestorian" churches that grew up in the sixth to fourteenth centuries, and especially the Jingjiao church of China. The presenters are linguists of Syriac, Chinese, and other Central Asian languages; archaeologists from China and the West; historians, experts of Buddhism, and the like. While the papers are of varying quality, those interested in early Christianity in China will find the material here much mre reliable than in the ffew popular books that have come out in English on this subject. Those interested in this volume will also want to consult the papers from the first conference in 2003 (Roman Malek and Peter Hofrichter, "Jingjiao : the Church of the East in China and Central Asia," Monumenta Serica [Sankt Augustin: Institut Monumenta Serica], 2006).

Kirk Cameron's Comments

Comments Kirk Cameron made in March calling homosexuality "unnatural," "detrimental," and "ultimately destructive to so many of the foundations of civilization." The actor received backlash from the comments, which he made on Piers Morgan but told he had also received a tremendous amount of support. "I should be able to express moral views on social issues," he said, "especially those that have been the underpinning of Western civilization for 2,000 years - without being slandered, accused of hate speech, and told from those who preach 'tolerance' that I need to either bend my beliefs to their moral standards or be silent when I'm in the public square.

Mel Gibson and the Hanukkah Movie Crisis (NOTE: There is foul language in this story-I tried to clean it up.)

Script Released

TheWrap has obtained a copy of "The Maccabees" script, or as Joe Eszterhas titled it, "M.C.K.B.I." I've read it. And here's what I can tell you: it's exceedingly bloody, it's hardly mainstream – and it is in every way a Jewish "Braveheart," just as Eszterhas claimed. The question is, perhaps: Does anyone outside the Anti-Defamation League want to see a Jewish "Braveheart"? Eszterhas's script is remarkably faithful to the 2nd century B.C. biblical tale. A group of five brothers, sons of the high priest Mattathias, band together to fight the anti-Jewish occupation of Israel by the Greek-Syrian ruler, Antiochus. It is primal: white hats and black hats. Heroes and heinous villains. Good vs. evil. On the face of it, this is a script that Mel Gibson should absolutely love: A band of pious underdogs take on an evil overlord. (They don't paint their faces a la "Braveheart," but the Jewish women are physically branded as harlots.) It is full of throat-slitting and cutting off of heads. There are miles of heads on stakes. In one scene, a woman plunges a dagger into the eye of an opponent. Hearts are cut out of dead bodies. And the fighting is full of Rambo-like relish. From one scene: "Ramses turns to run, but Judah is on him...Ramses falls. Judah kills him with his bare hands - lifting him by the neck and snapping it suddenly. Judah gets up and faces the other mercenaries. He is a crazed, furious, dervish - explosive, a killing machine. The mercenaries have shields, swords, and shovel-like spears. Judah draws his knife. He is a fighting machine at full roar." Like "Passion of the Christ," "The Maccabees" assert their principles in the face of a sadistic, heathen overlord (that would be the Greek-Syrian Antiochus instead of the Roman overlord Pontius Pilate.) And like "Braveheart," it is a story of people fighting for freedom. In one scene, Judah the Maccabee vows: "We will be free! The day will come when we'll be free! We will be free to pray to our God! We will be free to educate our children! We will never have to bend our knee to anyone but our Lord! The day will come when we'll be strong and mighty, strong enough to defeat anyone - anyone! - who wants to wipe us off the face of the earth. (He puts his clenched fist up into the air and bows his head.)" Some might find it a little much, but not – as Warner Bros. production president Greg Silverman told Eszterhas – short on "feeling" and "a sense of triumph." Maccabee Movie put on hold. Warner Bros. has put on hold a controversial Mel Gibson movie project about the Jewish Maccabee revolt in the 2nd Century B.C. after reading the script by writer Joe Eszterhas, TheWrap has learned. A spokesman for the studio told TheWrap: "We are analyzing what to do with the project." Jewish groups were outraged after news broke in September that Gibson had reached a production deal with Warner's to direct the story of Judah Maccabee, whose victory over Greek and Syrian armies is celebrated at Hanukkah. One Jewish group called it "a moral lapse in judgement." Rabbi Marvin Hier, founder and dean of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, said he was pleased that the project had been shelved. "Jewish history will be better off without Mel Gibson playing Judah Maccabee," Hier told TheWrap.

Controversy erupts

Eszterhas delivered the script in late February, and Warner's has since passed on it, according to an individual close to the project. Warner production president Greg Silverman described it as lacking in "feeling" and "a sense of triumph," according to the individual. Screenwriter Joe Eszterhas says he and his family were house guests of Mel Gibson in Costa Rica last December when the 'Mad Max' star went off on a blistering tirade, recorded on an iPhone by Eszterhas ' 15-year-old son Nick. Eszterhas, who wrote the blockbuster "Basic Instinct," was writing a screenplay for Gibson for a film called "The Maccabees." The fact that the screenplay had not been completed seems to be one of the things that set Gibson off. "Why don't I have a first draft of 'The Maccabees'? What the f**k have you been doing?" he can be heard bellowing on the recording on The Wrap's website. And it gets worse. Gibson, 56, also screams about Oksana Grigorieva, his ex-girlfriend and mother of his young daughter. "I am earning money for a filthy little c**ksucker who takes advantage of me!" Gibson rants. Gibson and Eszterhas and have been involved in a heated back and forth over the past weeks, during which Eszterhas accused Gibson of making anti-Semitic remarks and threatening Grigorieva. Eszterhas wrote a scathing, nine-page letter to Gibson in which he accused the actor of "hating Jews" and using "The Maccabees" film project – a story about Jewish heroism -- "in an attempt to deflect continuing charges of anti-Semitism which have dogged you, charges which have crippled your career." "I've come to the conclusion that the reason you won't make 'The Maccabees' is the ugliest possible one. You hate Jews," Eszterhas wrote."The Maccabees" project was put on hold by Warner Bros. studio, in part due to Eszterhas' script, The Wrap reported. Gibson has called several of Eszterhas' assertions "fabrications," and may sue the writer. The actor is looking into whether Costa Rican laws were violated when he was secretly taped in his home, and if his privacy was violated by the release of the audio, TMZ reports.

Read more:


Mel's Rant

Following is a transcript of a rant by Mel Gibson to screenwriter Joe Eszterhas in Costa Rica. It was recorded by Eszterhas' son Nick in December and obtained by TheWrap.

Mel – (screaming the whole time)

Why don't I have a first draft of "The "Maccabees"?

What the f**k have you been doing?

I'll type it!

— mumbling inaudible —

It's her!

— mumbling inaudible —

I go to work, you're getting paid, I'm not! S**t!

I am earning money for a filthy little c***sucker who takes advantage of me!

Just like every motherf***er!

So hurry the f**k up!

(Throwing things, knocking down the totem pole)

F**k! God!

(Coming up from the billiard room and approaching the table and screaming at the top of his lungs in the face of his guests)

Who wants to eat?! Who the fuck wants to eat?! Go have something to eat! Hurrrrraaaaayyyyyy!





F**kin' hate!

F***ing c**t c***sucker whore!

(Very hoarse)


(Screaming as he runs toward the driveway, gets into his car and drives away)

More Details

As another individual put it: "The script didn't pass muster." But in an explosive letter to Gibson obtained by TheWrap, Eszterhas said that the director never planned to make the movie, and was using him to deflect Gibson's anti-Semitic reputation. He wrote: "I've come to the conclusion that the reason you won't make 'The Maccabees' is the ugliest possible one. You hate Jews."

Update: Gibson responded in a letter to Eszterhas: "Both Warner Brothers and I were extraordinarily disappointed with the draft. In 25 years of script development I have never seen a more substandard first draft or a more significant waste of time. The decision not to proceed with you was based on the quality of your script, not on any other factor."Gibson also apologized for using "colorful" language, but said that much of Eszterhas's observations were "utter fabrications." Eszterhas declined to comment. Warner's has a long history of collaborating with Gibson, but the star was upset after the studio rescinded his cameo in "The Hangover Part II" when the crew protested his involvement. (Thank God that he didn't appear in that movie. It was the worst movie I had ever seen. And it was basically gay porn.) The project involved one of Gibson's favored themes -- an underdog army fighting for freedom. In 165 B.C., Jewish leader Maccabee led his brothers in revolt against the Seleucid Empire, ruled by Antiochus Epiphanes who had forbidden Jewish practices. Noting his checkered history of making anti-Semitic remarks and his controversial depiction of Jews in his 2003 film "The Passion of the Christ," Jewish leaders said the choice of Gibson to direct a film about a prominent figure in their religion was insensitive.

Career Kaput: Has Mel Gibson finally used up all his Hollywood lifelines?

By Holly McKay, April 20, 2012 Fox News

This week screenwriter Joe Eszterhas released a profanity-laced recording starring Oscar-winning actor Mel Gibson. "Why don't I have a first draft of "The Maccabees?" What the f--- have you been doing?" Gibson screams, unaware that he was being recorded by Eszterhas' son. Eszterhas says his family was staying at Gibson's home in Costa Rica this past December when Gibson went off about their film project. Gibson also goes after his ex, Oksana Grigorieva, ranting: "I am earning money for a filthy little c--ksucker who takes advantage of me!" This is familiar territory when it comes to Gibson. In 2006, he was arrested for a DUI and went on an anti-Semitic diatribe against the arresting officer. In 2010, several tapes were released online of the actor/director verbally abusing Grigorieva, the mother of his two-year-old daughter, Lucia. Yet following each hate-filled meltdown, the "Braveheart" star managed to bounce back and make more movies, albeit fewer and farther between than in his career prime. But now that could all be over, experts say. "Much of Hollywood has already shunned Mel Gibson and that's why it was so shocking to many when 'The Maccabees' selected him for the project. The fact that Gibson's rant involves the film's screenwriter will almost certainly lead to a blacklisting," PR pro Glenn Selig told FOX411's Pop Tarts column. "It also is proof that despite [everything], Gibson has not changed and is still in desperate need of anger management counseling, and that hiring him for any project invites trouble, unwanted negative publicity and brings with it unpredictability." According to an industry site, Gibson has no projects in the works aside from a "rumored" role in Robert Rodriguez's "Machete" sequel entitled "Machete Kills." His only movie slated for release this year, his self-financed crime drama "Get the Gringo," will skip a theatrical run entirely and debut on DirecTV next month. Industry watcher Scott Huver says the only way Gibson can maintain a Hollywood presence is to produce and fund his own films. "As one of Hollywood's highest-grossing, highest-paid stars for decades, financing his own films won't be a problem: finding distributors, theaters that will play them and audiences to see them will be the issue," Huver said. "At this point, given the presumed frequency of these sorts of tantrums, anyone in Hollywood – even Gibson's biggest filmmaking fans and supporters – would have to give pause to the notion of working with him again, at least until he's able to show demonstrate some concrete progress in managing his volcanic outbursts." As it stands, public apologies like he has made in the past aren't likely enough. "He would be well-advised to ignore any fallout from his latest taped rant. He has already been blacklisted in Hollywood, that's why he is living in Costa Rica and producing his own movies," says crisis management expert Gene Grabowski of Levick Strategic Communications. "Because of his success 20 years ago, Gibson no longer has to seek job offers. He now creates his own opportunities, but if he invests too much time explaining his position and responding to fallout, he will only lose more fans." TMZ reported that Gibson may sue Eszterhas over possible invasion of privacy. A rep for Gibson declined to comment.

Responses and my take:

Joe Eszterhas was supposed to deliver him a decent script on time and he didn't. According to Gibson he delivered him crap ... a worthless piece of crap! (-from a post on the news)

Mel Gibson's mistake was having Joe Eszterhas write the script. The man's creativity is seen in his having a woman expose her vulva in "Basic Instinct." Eszterhas is also the author of the notorious trashy pornographic ("NC-17" rated) movie "Showgirls." I don't understand why Mel Gibson would let a pornographer write the script for his Bible movie. So, here is what is happened. Mr. Eszterhas did not write the script, Mel Gibson confronted him. Mr. Eszterhas rushed the script to completion-producing an inferior script. I don't understand why he didn't finish the script. He had plenty of time. The announcement was made in September. In late February, Mel Gibson confronted his and cussed him out. Now I avoid using obscene language. I don't think that he should use the language. I do not sympathize with his former Russian girlfriend. We don't have the complete recordings that she recorded of him-so we don't have the complete context. However, his rants when he was arrested and his rants to his former Russian girlfriend are horrible. I think that this situation was different. In the movies "Tropic Thunder" and the trashy TV show "Entourage," we have portrayals of foul mouthed producers. Apparently, Hollywood thinks that such behavior is acceptable-or at least amusing-unless it is coming from Mel Gibson.

Here is what I think happened. Mr. Eszterhas is in breach of contract. He did not produce a script in a timely manner. (Six months is plenty of time. Being generous, I could write a script in less than three months-three weeks for research and three to six weeks to write the script.) Mel Gibson confronted him on the fact that there was no script after six months. Then, Mr. Eszterhas threw a script together. It was awful. It was rejected by Mel Gibson and the studio. To save face and to "cover his butt" he released the audio of his getting a butt-chewing from Mel Gibson. Eszterhas deserved to get chewed out. Then, to get "revenge" on Mel Gibson (for his own failures) he accuses him of other statements. He makes other outlandish claims about comments Mel Gibson supposedly made. I think Mr. Eszterhas is lying. If he as recordings I will believe it-otherwise I don't. Mel Gibson shouldn't have used foul language, but this time he is in the right. The Hollywood establishment is out to get Mel Gibson. He can't afford to have angry outbursts. He has also hurt his public image by his temper tantrums. This time his anger is justifiable. Mel Gibson's mistake was to hire Mr. Eszterhas to write the Maccabee script.

My advice to Mel Gibson

If I were Mel Gibson, I would go forward with the Maccabee movie. He needs to hire a new script writer, hopefully someone who is more reliable that Mr. Eszterhas. Mel Gibson needs to direct and produce and perhaps have a cameo in the Maccabee movie. (Perhaps appearing as Mattathias, Judah Maccabee's father.) This is an unfortunate set-back. It will probably take at least four months for his project to go forward, if it goes forward at all. All of this is an unfortunate set back, based on choosing the wrong person to write the Script. Mel needs to persevere.

Pray for Sudan

The Christians of Southern Sudan won their freedom from the Islamic north at the cost of about three million dead. There was controversy over the border. An oil rich town exists in a border town with both Islamic Sudan and Southern Sudan claiming it belonged to them. Islamic Sudan threatened war. I would recommend that Southern Sudan let the north have it. Southern Sudan has only been an independent nation for one year. They need time to consolidate their power and independence. War, at this stage, is to great a risk. What if the north takes over all of Southern Sudan again? Sometimes war is necessary, but I feel that the Christians of Southern Sudan cannot afford war at this point.

Pray for Syria

I lived in Syria. I love Syria and I want regime change for Syria. France is trying to pressure the international community to intervene. America is now stating that we are looking at "tougher moves" against the slaughter of the Syrian people by the Alawite Assad regime.


Pray for Egypt

Thankfully, the radical terrorist organization "Muslim Brotherhood's," candidate for the presidency of Egypt has been disqualified. Amr Moussa is the former foreign minister of Egypt and is a front runner in the race. He is presenting himself as the last bulwark against an Islamic state and warns that is a Muslim brotherhood candidate wins-Egypt will become a one party system dominated by the Muslim brotherhood. Another front runner is Aboul Fotouh. We must pray that the government of Egypt be moderate and democratic, that it would protect the rights of the Coptic Christians and protect them from religious persecution

Dangerous Islamic Terrorist in England

Abu Qataba, a dangerous Muslim terrorist, is finally being deported from England. England allows terrorists to operate freely and openly in their country. Abu Qataba is a high level Al Qaida operative. What is worse is that he has collected millions of dollars in welfare benefits from the British public. . The British public is so paralyzed by fear of Islamic radicalism that they are afraid even to discuss it, while Islamists take advantage of the situation.

Pakistan and Afghanistan

On other news, Russia criticized NATO's plans to withdraw from Afghanistan by 2014 saying that forces should stay until Afghanistan is stabilized. Around the same time, "militants" attacked a Pakistan prison and released 400 men who were arrested for terrorism. What REALLY happened was the government of Pakistan released 400 militants after a staged "terrorist" attack on a prison-so as to avoid international criticism. Saudi Arabia and Pakistan need to be labeled what they are "state sponsors of terrorism."

Chuck Colson Dead

Chuck Colson died at the age of 80 years old. Since his conversion during his imprisonment during the Watergate scandal, he has been very active in Evangelism, Apologetics and Prison Ministry. Mr. Colson did a lot for the church and his death is a serious loss.

Aramaic Resources

Remember my books, such as "The Language of Jesus" and my book and comic books on the story of the Maccabees entitled "The Hammer of God." Remember this and the youtube site

Also, you can contact me at PO BOX 882, Shepherd, TX 77371

Friday, April 13, 2012

Christ’s words in his own language

By Stephen Andrew Missick

Jesus did not speak English, Latin or Greek-Jesus spoke Aramaic!

© Copyright 2012 Stephen Andrew Missick

What language did Jesus speak and why does it matter?

The life of Jesus was the most important live ever lived. Jesus literally divided and changed history. The words of Jesus are the most important words ever spoken. This is especially true for the Christian. As this is true it is very important to understand the cultural and historical context of the spoken words of Jesus Christ and the original language in which his words were spoken. The evidence from the New Testament, archeology, the Church Fathers, and other textual evidence indicates that Jesus spoke Aramaic. Many Aramaic words are found scattered throughout the text of the New Testament. Aramaic is a language that is closely related to Hebrew. (Aramaic and Hebrew both evolved separately from an earlier extinct language called Proto-Semitic.) Aramaic is on of the original languages of the Old Testament. Ezra and Daniel contained lengthy sections that are written in Aramaic.



Jesus' Aramaic words-Abba, Father and others

In several occasions in the Gospels, Jesus is quoted speaking in his native Aramaic language. Those familiar with the Bible are familiar with Aramaic, although they may not realize it. One of the most well-known Aramaic words in the New Testament is the word that Jesus used for His Heavenly Father-Abba. Certain Aramaic scholars feel that this word is a more intimate word than "Father" and it's meaning is closer to the word "Daddy." Jesus gave his disciples Aramaic nicknames. This is seen in the name Cephas (actually Kefa) the Aramaic version of "Peter" which is used in the Gospel of John and in the Epistles of Paul. Jesus named James and John "Boanerges" which means "Sons of Thunder" in Aramaic. Other Aramaic names include Martha (Aramaic for "lady"), Thomas (Aramaic for "twin") and Magdalene (Aramaic for "tower"). In Hebrew "Ben" means "Son." However, we most often find the Aramaic form "Bar" (meaning "Son") in the New Testament in names like Barnabas ("Son of Encouragement" in Aramaic), Barabbas ("Son of the Father" in Aramaic) and Bartholomew (probably Aramaic for "Son of Ptolemy.").


Jesus: The Son of Man and Maranatha

About 80 times in the Bible, Jesus calls himself "the Son of Man." In Aramaic this is "Barnasha" and has many levels of meaning including meaning "A Human Being" or "a person." It seems that Jesus was quoting the Aramaic section of the Book of Daniel that refers to a cosmic pre-existent Messiah who brings the Kingdom of God. Daniel calls this mysterious figure-the Son of Man.

Paul closes his First Epistle to the Corinthians with a short Aramaic prayer-Maran atha. This is Aramaic for "Our Lord-come!" So we see that for the earliest Aramaic speaking Christians Jesus was Lord.



The Passion of the Christ

Many Christians have never heard of Aramaic. However, those who watched the movie "The Passion of the Christ" have been exposed to Aramaic. Most of this movie is in Aramaic. (There are a few Hebrew expressions used in the movie and there are also sections in the film that are in Latin.) When Jesus was on the cross of Golgotha (Aramaic for "the Place of the Skull") He said, "Eloi, Eloi lama sabachtani." This is Aramaic for "My God, My God, why hast thou forsaken me." (If Jesus had been speaking Hebrew he would have said, "Eli, Eli, lama azabtani." The words Jesus is quoted as speaking in the Gospel are Aramaic and not Hebrew.) Jesus was quoting Psalm 22. Psalm 22 along with Isaiah 53 are Old Testament prophecies about the crucifixion and the atonement.




Aramaic and the Apostles: Thaddeus and Thomas

According to ancient Aramaic documents and writings of the Church Fathers, the Apostles Thaddeus and Thomas carried Christianity to the Aramaic speaking people of Assyria and Babylonia. According to the story, an Assyrian king named Abgar heard of the miracle working power of Jesus of Nazareth. He sent a message to Jesus to come and heal him and to dwell in his kingdom. Jesus refused to go but promised to send an apostle after his resurrection and ascension. At the day of Pentecost, Thomas, filled with the Holy Spirit, sent Thaddeus to plant the Gospel in Mesopotamia. The Assyrians believed and converted. Later, Thomas also preached to the Assyrians on his way to India.


The Assyrian Church of the East

Jesus spoke of the Assyrians (or Ninevites) who repented at the preaching of Jonah. Every year, the Assyrian Christians celebrate a festival called "The Rogation of the Ninevites" to remember how their ancestors believed in the One True God in ancient times. Founded by the Apostles, the Assyrian Church of the East is the church of the Assyrians and its heartland was Mesopotamia (although it extended to the furthest regions of the East). The Assyrian Church of the East is one of the churches of the Aramaic Church tradition. (Other churches included the Chaldean Catholic Church, the Syrian Orthodox Church and the Maronite Church. There are also the Mandaean Baptists but they follow John the Baptist and not Jesus and are not Christians.)




Aramaic Christians in China, Mongolia and India

Jesus told his followers to carry his message to all of the world. The Aramaic Christians took this command very seriously. Before the year 800 A.D. they had planted churches in China, India, Mongolia and even on remote islands off of the coast of Africa such as Socotra. Due to religious persecution coming from radical Muslims and other factors these churches (with the exception of the church of India) have disappeared. Inscriptions in Chinese, Mongolian and Aramaic have been found all across Central Asia and China and the remains of old churches and scrolls containing Christian teachings have been found by archeologists.


Aramaic Church Fathers

Many are familiar with the Church Fathers who wrote in Greek and Latin. However, several Church Fathers wrote in Aramaic. These Church Fathers wrote in a form of Aramaic called Syriac. ("Aram" is actually an old way of saying Syria.) Syriac is very close to the form of Aramaic that was spoken by Jesus Christ and his Apostles. Tatian the Assyrian was a disciple of the famous Saint Justin Martyr. Tatian the Assyrian was the first person to compose a harmony of the Gospels. He did this in a Greek and an Aramaic edition. Saint Ephraim is another famous Aramaic Church Fathers. There were many Aramaic theologians and Bible scholars whose writings have come down to us.



The Aramaic Bible

Parts of the Old Testament were written in Aramaic. Some time after the Babylonian Captivity and the return to the land of Israel under Ezra and Nehemiah, Aramaic had displaced Hebrew as the primary spoken language of many of the Jewish people in the land of Israel. Translations of the Bible into Aramaic were made so that the people could know the Bible. (Jesus is quoted in the Gospels as recited an Aramaic version of Psalm 22 from the cross.) Some of these Aramaic Bibles, called Targumim, have been discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Jewish people have preserved Targumim and still use them. With the spread of Aramaic Christianity, it was necessary to have an Aramaic version of the New Testament in order to meet the spiritual needs of Assyrian Christians. The Bible used by Aramaic Christians is called the Syriac Peshitta. (Scholars believe that the Peshitta Old Testament is a Targum translated by an ancient sect of Messianic Jews.)



The Rise of Islam

The emergence of Islam was the greatest tragedy that befell the Aramaic Christians. Muslims invaded their homeland and then persecuted and exploited the Christians. According to the injunctions of the Koran, Muslims waged war against Christians, Christians were placed in a status of humiliation and were forced to pay protection money called the Jizya (Koran 9:29). Muslim leaders constantly extorted huge sums of money from the Christian peoples they had conquered. Many could not afford to pay the "jizya" tax they were required to pay in order to be allowed to continue to practice Christianity and so they converted. Over time, the number of Christians diminished. Although there were occasional tolerant Muslim leaders who refused to implement the brutal and barbaric Sharia legal system of discrimination upon the Christians, every 50 years or so Assyrian Christians (as well as the Coptic Christians in Egypt) endured horrific persecutions that included Muslims massacring multitudes of Christians.



The Current Plight of Middle Eastern Christians

Sadly, the Islamic persecution of Christians is not a thing of the past. In the beginning of the twentieth century Muslims killed over one million Armenian (and Assyrian) Christians. At the end of the twentieth century, over a million Sudanese Christians were killed by Muslims. At the beginning of the twenty-first century, the persecution of Assyrian Christians in Mesopotamia and the Coptic Christians of Egypt has intensified. In 2004 Muslim radicals bombed churches across Baghdad during religious services. On October 31, 2010, a horrific church massacre occurred in Baghdad in which over fifty Christians were viciously slaughtered. When making the movie "The Passion of the Christ" Mel Gibson said that he was filming it in an extinct language. However, Aramaic isn't extinct yet. Certain Christians in the Middle East and Middle East Christian immigrant communities in the west still speak Aramaic. Aramaic is a threatened language because radical Muslims are attempting to ethnic cleanse the Middle East of its indigenous Christian communities and assimilation to the west (which includes the loss of Aramaic-speaking) is a rapid process.


A List of Aramaic Words in the New Testament

Abba, Father


And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible to thee; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what thou wilt. (Mark 14:36)


The Aramaic word "Abba" is also found in the writings of Paul in Romans 8:15 and Galatians 4:6) Abba is an Aramaic loan word in Modern Hebrew. The Hebrew word is "avi." God is called "Father" over 100 times in the Gospels!


Eloi, Eloi lama sabachtani


And at the ninth hour, Jesus shouted in a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi lema sabachtani?" which is translated, "My God, my God, for what have you forsaken me?" (Mark 15:34) See also Matthew 27:46.


Talitha Koum


And taking the hand of the child, he said to her, "Talitha koum," which is translated, "Little girl, I say to you, get up." (Mark 5:41)




"Maranatha" 1 Corinthians 16:22. This word is also used in the Didache. It means "Come, Our Lord." The word for "Lord" in Hebrew is "Adonai."




Jesus looked at him and said, "You are Simon son of John. You will be called Cephas" (which, when translated, is Peter). NIV footnote: Both Cephas (Aramaic) and Peter (Greek) mean rock. John 1:42. (See also 1 Corinthians 1:12 and Galatians 2:9).




About the Author

Stephen Andrew Missick has traveled extensively in the Middle East and has lived with the Assyrian Christians in Mesopotamia and the Coptic Christians in Egypt. He has served with the military in Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003-2004 and 2009-2010.

He has graduated with a Masters of Divinity from Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.

Stephen Missick is the author of several books on the Aramaic language and the Aramaic Christian heritage.

These include:

The Words of Jesus in the Original Aramaic: Discovering the Semitic Roots of Christianity

The Language of Jesus: Introducing Aramaic

Aramaic: the Language of Jesus of Nazareth

Stephen Andrew Missick is available to come to your church and give a presentation on Aramaic, the Aramaic Christian heritage and Islamic and Christian relations and the problem of religious persecution of Christians.

For more information or to contact Stephen Missick:

PO Box 882, Shepherd TX 77371,,

King of Saints Church, Cleveland, Texas 281-592-4104


There are organizations that give to help the persecuted Christians of the Middle East. These include: the Barnabas Fund and Iraqi Christian Relief Council

Christian history is often told from a Euro-centric point of view with the contributions of the Christians of Asia and Africa ignored. Recently, books have been published that rectify this problem.

History of the World Christian Movement: Earliest Christianity to 1453 by Dale Irvin and Scott W. Sunquist

A History of Christianity in Asia: Beginnings to 1500 by Samuel Hugh Moffett

The Martyred Church: A History of the Church of the East by David Wilmshurst

The Church of the East: An Illustrated History of Assyrian Christianity by Christoph Baumer

Christians in Asia before 1500 by Ian Gilman and Hans-Joachim Klimkeit


Stephen Andrew Missick's books on "The Language of Jesus" include a helpful "Aramaic Resource Guide" that lists good Aramaic resources.

12 Christians in Iran await verdicts after Easter Sunday apostasy trial

By Lisa Daftari, April 11, 2012, Foxnews

Twelve Christians stood trial Easter Sunday in Iran, where they were called "apostates" in a courtroom and tried on multiple charges, according to sources close to Iran's Christian community. The Christians had been acquitted on the same charges, including "crimes against the order," a year ago in Bandar Anzali, a city on the Caspian Sea. The group was first arrested when authorities found them drinking wine while taking communion, according to sources. "It ultimately illustrates that being a Christian is illegal in Iran. No matter how clear or how open a pastor and a church may be, Christians are being brought to trial just for being Christian," said Jason DeMars, director of the Present Truth Ministries advocacy group who is in daily contact with the Evangelical Christian community in Iran. No verdict has yet been issued in the case. The attorney for the group, prominent human rights advocate Mohammad Ali Dadkhah -- who also represents Youcef Nadarkhani, the Iranian Christian pastor charged with apostasy and sentenced to death for leaving Islam and converting to Christianity -- was not able to attend Sunday's court appearance, according to sources who said his flight from Tehran was fogged in. The 12 represented themselves to the judge. "Their defense was that they were performing religious rituals that are protected by law," DeMars said. Though the Iranian constitution grants protection to religious minorities born into religions, such as Christians, Zoroastrians and Jews, over the last year and a half individuals in these minority communities have reported increased pressure and clashes with government officials and Revolutionary Guards as their influence continues to mount throughout the country. But converting, or more specifically, the act of turning from Islam, can be punishable by death. To leave the Islamic faith or to attempt to convert others away from the faith warrants capital punishment under Shariah Law. Among the 12 are community leader the Rev. Matthias Haghnejad and his wife, Anahita Khadeimi. The others are Mahmoud Khosh-Hal and his wife, Hava Saadetmend, Amir Goldoust, Mina Goldoust, Zhaina Bahremand, Fatemah Modir-Nouri, Mehrdad Habibzade, Milad Radef, Behzad Taalipasand and Amin Pishkar. They stood trial in a court in Rasht, the same province where Nadarkhani was charged and has been held for more than two years. This latest crackdown comes as a surprise since Iran's regime had scaled back after coming under international pressure regarding the case of Nadarkhani over the last few months. Nadarkhani, now 34, converted to Christianity at 19 and came under the regime's radar a few times as a result of his participation in his church and Christian community. He was arrested once and released and then arrested again in 2009 and found guilty of apostasy. The court gave Nadarkhani a chance to recant and return to Islam, but he refused. In February, he was sentenced to death, and the news of this verdict brought about heavy international backlash against the regime. As advocacy groups across the globe continue to petition for his release, Nadarkhani is being held in prison and the execution order still remains. This most recent probe on Iran's Christian community and subsequent trial on the Easter holiday come as the Christian community, particularly those converted from Islam, reports a surge in government retaliation coinciding with a growing popularity in conversions to Christianity. "There are a lot of people who are disgruntled with the government and many for comfort and peace in their lives are turning to Christianity. That's a threat to the regime," DeMars said. "The more people who turn from Islam, the fewer people the regime has on its side." Presently, there are more than 100,000 Evangelical Christians in Iran, according to conservative estimates. Many believe that number is significantly higher, as there is no accurate way to account for underground churches. Read more:

Persian Christians

Persians are not Semitic. They are actually related to the Romans and Germans-and not the Arabs. The word Iran is derived from Aryan, which originally meant the "Indo-European" stock, before Hitler tainted the meaning of this word. It is interesting that the new book on the history of the Aramaic Church of the East includes information about the Persian Christians. The Church of the East is Aramaic speaking, however many of its members spoke many languages. An important cross found in India has a Pahlavi inscription. (Pahlavi writing system, as adopted to render various Middle Iranian languages.) The history of the Persian Church (a part of the so-called "Nestorian") ancient Church of the East is explored in "The Martyred Church" and "Church of the East" a coffee-table book by Christoph Baumer. I have included a picture of the Pahlavi Cross on the cover of this newsletter. I recently did a presentation on the Jewish festival of Purim (it is on You Tube). Because of the evil Mullah regime certain people want to demonize all of Persia. I said look at the Bible-the Persians are portrayed as the good guys overall in the Bible. The book of Isaiah calls the Persian king Cyrus a "Messiah." The Great Courses now has "The Persian Empire" by Professor John W. I. Lee available. I have studied the Babylonians and the ancient Assyrians to a lesser degree. Hopefully, they will have classes available on the Assyrians and Babylonians soon. The Persians were a great civilization. I think they should not have fought with the Greeks-but you shouldn't demonize and entire great civilization for one error.

The Hunger Games: An Attack on the War Effort

The media has been telling people to go watch "The Hunger Games." At the same time, the media has told people not the go watch the movie "John Carter." The Hunger Games is a mediocre movie. John Carter was a good movie, much better than the anti-war, anti-American "Avatar." The Hunger Games has made a lot of money-John Carter was not a hit but did okay (But lost money-because of its huge budget.) I have a problem with "The Hunger Games." It is based on a children's book. The author, Suzanne Collins, wrote it as an attack on the Iraq War and the media promoting and sensationalizing the war. It was first published on September 14, 2008, by Scholastic, in hardcover. It is written in the voice of sixteen-year-old Katniss Everdeen, who lives in a post-apocalyptic world in the country of Panem where the countries of North America once existed. The Capitol, a highly advanced metropolis, holds hegemony over the rest of the nation. The Hunger Games are an annual event in which one boy and one girl aged 12 to 18 from each of the 12 districts surrounding the Capitol are selected by lottery to compete in a televised battle in which only one person can survive. Collins says that the inspiration to write The Hunger Games came from channel surfing on television. On one channel she observed people competing on a reality show and on another she saw footage of the invasion of Iraq. The two "began to blur in this very unsettling way" and the idea for the book was formed. The Greek myth of Theseus served as the basis for the story, with Collins describing Katniss as a futuristic Theseus, and that Roman gladiatorial games formed the framework. The images of children killing each other-and bashing brains out with bricks for instance, can be seen in the movie and are very disturbing and unsuitable viewing for children-but the media is really pushing the Hunger Games hard. (I don't know why they had it out for "John Carter." They want every one to watch a movie showing children brutally killing each other, but don't want people to see the entertaining movie John Carter, that has a good story and amazing special effects.) The idea of the War on Terror as children dying senselessly is absurd. There is a real threat from Islamist terror and our soldiers are gallant heroes protecting us and making the world a safer place. This is a necessary war. Collins would have us believe that the Government is sending children to die needlessly. (The idea is that there is no real enemy. The true enemy is the government which is sending children to their deaths for no real reason.) The "Hunger Games" is ridiculous and viciously anti-American, anti-Military heroes propaganda. Also, the News Media and Hollywood have done everything in their power to undermine the war effort and turn the public against the war. Hollywood made many crappy anti-war movies-during the war-in my opinion sedition and treason. I think that during the war-the government has the right to stop such sedition. Movies such as Rendition, Lions for Lambs, Stop Loss, the Green Zone, on and on, all flops but Hollywood kept on churning them out. Collins premise that the media is behind the war and promoting it is also ridiculous. This woman has a weak grasp on reality and is brainwashing children with anti-war propaganda and entertaining children with images of small children stabbing and hacking each other to death. It is troubling and disturbing. Especially the scene of children using bricks to bash each others brains out-which is shown in the film. The media did want us to go to Somalia and into Bosnia and to Kosovo (in Bosnia and Kosovo-driving Christians from their land and giving Christian territory to Islamic control). But the media doesn't want us fighting against Islamic terror. Collins is part of the Media-Government Complex. As a veteran who served in Iraq twice-I find Collins transparent mischaracterization of the war effort and her distortions of the historical reality (although she does it in fiction) deeply offensive.

North Korea

North Korea is launching an inter-continental ballistic missile ostensibly to launch a satellite. Experts say that the missile could reach the United States. North Korea says that its missile program is for peaceful purposes and not military. I saw the newscaster say that "we will have to wait and see." Wait and see for what-a mushroom cloud over the United States? Obviously, MacArthur was right and Truman was wrong. Let us pray for peace. (The missile exploded two minutes after the launch, praise God.)

The Agenda: Grinding America Down

When Idaho Legislator Curtis Bowers wrote a "letter to the editor" about the drastic changes in America's culture, it became the feature story on the evening news, people protested at the Capitol, and for weeks the local newspapers were filled with responses. He realized then... he'd hit on something. Ask almost anyone and you'll hear, "Communism is dead! The Berlin Wall came down." Thought the word communism isn't used anymore, this film will show the ideas behind it are alive and well. Join Bowers for a fascinating look at the people and groups that have successfully targeted America's morality and freedom in their effort to grind America down. It's a well documented AGENDA.
This film shows how the left has worked to undermine traditional American values and our culture by taking control of our education system and dumbing down our children. They're taught a false history of our country and combined with a sewer culture and a lying, left dominated media, when they reach voting age, they're primed for a malignant megalomaniac narcissist like O to step into their lives. Their first objective is to take GOD out of our lives and the movie clearly shows how it has been done. This is a movie every American needs to see. The country is clearly at a fork in the road. Do we continue down the 1960's road or go back to what the Founding Fathers were trying to do.

Objection to mural sparks political correctness debate School censors students "objectionable" art

The theme of the offensive painting was the journey of a man's life from elementary school to graduation to marriage to a woman and fatherhood. The mural was offensive because it depicted the man married. The seventeen year old artist (Liz Bierenday at Pilgrim High School LA) was forced to paint over the offensive images. (Actually the janitor painted over the image.) What the school found particularly offensive was the religious overtones. (Seen in the"Wedding Rings"!) The "traditional family" was determined to be offensive. The offensive theme was the wedding ring implying wedding in the Christian or Catholic tradition. Democrats force Christians to pay for art depicting the Virgin Mary made up of pornographic images and covered with manure, Jesus being eaten by ants on the cross, Jesus engaging in homosexual sex acts with his Twelve Apostles, and a crucifix submerged in urine (all supported by the tax payer financed National Endowment of the Arts) and accuse Christians of "censorship" when they complain about being forced to pay for such "art"-but they censor an "offensive" image of the traditional "nuclear" family. The Liberal's Attack on Christianity Marines fight to protect crosses at Camp Pendleton as atheist groups seek removal By Adam Housley
Published April 12, 2012

Planted atop a remote hill in the middle of California's Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base rests two 13-foot crosses. Originally erected back in 2003 by seven Marines grieving over lives lost in the war on terror, this site originally established for reflection has now become grounds for controversy. "It's not a religious spot at all, it's a place for the Marines to grieve and to grow to let go of their burdens of what they had in their soul, so they can go back down that hill and back into battle and put their own lives on the line," says Marine widow Karen Mendoza. Her husband Ray was one of those original seven who climbed the hill that day, three of whom have since been killed in action, including Ray. "It's a symbol of sacrifice regardless of what you think, pray, like or don't like," says Karen. Over time the site has become a bit more permanent. A wildfire destroyed the original cross a few years back, so Marines and widows carried these two new versions up the hill. Now two symbols are at the end of a brutal 3,000-foot hike that begins at an area of the base called Camp Horno and ends at the top of a ridge line that overlooks vast openness in one direction and the glistening Pacific Ocean in the other. Here the crosses are blanketed in symbols of valor, sorrow and festivity. You'll see Purple Heart medals, pictures, books, messages, mementos from deployments around the globe and even a bottle or can of the fallen's favorite liquor...all left in remembrance. But the area has become controversial and more known after a newspaper report last fall detailed the location and posted a picture. In response, several groups filed complaints with Marines arguing the site violated the Constitutional mandate of separation of church and state, including the Military Association of Atheists and Freethinkers or MAAF. They want the crosses moved to a church on private land and flags or some other symbol used instead to mark the site. Read more: I have no doubt that, unless we have a change of administration this year-we will see a full scale attack on Christianity by the United States Government. It has already begun. We have already seen it at the Veteran's Cemetery in Houston. Obama appointee Arleen Ocasio reportedly told volunteers with the National Memorial Ladies that they had to stop telling families "God bless you" at funerals and that they had to remove the words "God bless" from condolence cards. Ocasio ordered Pastor Rainey who was officiating at a private funeral from using the words "Jesus Christ" in his invocation. At the VA cemetery the Obama administration censors sermons and tells people how they can pray and tells them that it is forbidden to use "religious language." So much for religious freedom! Sadly, this is what is going on in America now…Liberals declare war on motherhood and the home Democratic strategist and CNN contributor Hilary Rosen attacked Ann Romney, wife of presumptive GOP presidential candidate Mitt Romney, for her choice to be a stay-at-home mother. " Rosen sparked a firestorm of criticism by suggesting Wednesday evening on CNN that Romney was not qualified to help her husband on the campaign trail address women's issues. "Guess what, (Romney's) wife has actually never worked a day in her life," said Rosen, who has twins with ex-partner Elizabeth Birch. "I made a choice to stay home and raise five boys," tweeted Romney, a 64-year-old mother of five and grandmother of 16. "Believe me, it was hard work." While raising her children, Mrs. Romney battled her breast cancer and her being afflicted with Multiple Sclerosis. I DO NOT endorse Romney for President of the United States. I think he is a left-wing extremist. However, I believe it is deplorable to see spokespeople for the Democrat Party attacking the family and the home. Once the radical Democrats oppress American Christians, especially Evangelicals, there will be no one to help defend the persecuted Christians around the world. Where are the moderate Democrats? Why don't they fight for their party to take it back from the Left Wing Extremists who now run it? I am not a Republican. The Republican Party has become a worthless and pathetic political party. The two party system is failing America. I love my country and I feel that it is so sad to see what this country is coming to. I want to leave this country. I may go to Malta which is a devout Semitic Christian nation. I don't want to have any part in what this country is becoming. The choice for America this year seems to be between a Left-winger and a Marxist. It is sad that we don't really have any good choices and are stuck with supporting the lesser of two evils.

Juliana the Assyrian faces criticism!

Juliana Taimoorazy of Iraqi Christian Relief put together a good presentation about the history of the Aramaic Christians and the persecution that they now endure. Please watch:

Here is some criticism she received for her passionate video: "Ok, I'm less than 5 minutes into her tape and already having huge problems. None of the stuff she's holding up as admirable actually is. Hammurabi's laws were totally unjust. Ninevah had a world-wide reputation for evil and that's why Jonah really didn't want to go there. Mosul, it's current name, is still incredibly evil. The first nation who accepted Christ? Come on! What kind of fantasy is that? God established his people by calling Abram OUT OF Ur. The image on the flag is one I've seen on Ancient Aliens (part of my stupid tv watching) as evidence of their theory which is really just early demonic visitations. Jesus sent the king of Odessa a face cloth and a letter? In which gospel is that recorded? She may be a really nice lady and a totally sincere Christian, but this is just way too many red flags for me."
My response for Juliana> Hmmm, I don't know how she gets off saying Mosul is evil. Very odd-as is her condemnation of Hammurabi's law code. I don't agree with her-but I think we should consider some of her concerns. I can see her problem with the god on the flag-you probably shouldn't point that out. Certain religious people could be offended by it. Perhaps in a lecture-you can say that the Ninevites repented from their sins and that Jesus praised the Ninevites for their faith. That way, in attacking the Ninevites she is going against what Jesus said-that would cause her to pause. As far as first Christians and the face cloth-you could say "Eusebius, who is called "the Father of Church history" and wrote in 325 AD mentions how the Assyrians first received the gospel from Thaddeus and Thomas..." That way it comes from a reputable source and she can look it up herself. We have to consider our audience. There are problems with the Assyrian community-and their are also some problems with the Evangelical and "church people" audience too-some can be quick to judge and can be close-minded. You can say that the Garden of Eden was in Iraq-and that God sent his prophets-to Iraq-Daniel, Ezekiel and others. So, God brought people to Iraq-instead of jut sending them out. It was God's will for the people to come to Iraq. Ur was an advanced civilization. Knowing about Ur helps us to understand the world of Abraham. Her comment is too dismissive. We have to preservere-sometimes criticism is totally wrong and should be ignored. Sometimes criticism can be wrong but a distraction to our goals-and we should tailor our presentation to avoid un-necessary arguments. How can we focus on what is essential-create interest and not be put off focus needlessly? What we do is do our best-consider criticism and refine our delivery. I thought her presentation was fantastic. I have a habit sometimes of going on the attack when I am unfairly attacked or criticized-as you have been here. But sometimes we need to consider the motivation. Her motivation is wrong. BUT other Christians may think in similar manners and could be put off as she was. We should be aware of the mentality-and try to win them over anyway. We need to find how we can speak to them in their language. I probably offend people by discussing the decline of the United States. I don't care-the issue is too important. And I am not ashamed that I believe in Jesus Christ, freedom of religion and speech and traditional morality. I am not ashamed that I oppose the Islamic persecution of Christians around the world-and I am not afraid to discuss it. The radical left is polarizing the country. Battle-lines are being drawn. Everyone will have to choose soon-if they oppose Christianity, as the left does, or if they will choose to follow Christ. Soon, the leftists who control this country will create the environment here in America in which Christians in the Roman Empire found themselves and the situation that Coptic Christians and Aramaic Christians face in their homelands now. Persecution. The only way it can be stopped is if we fight back-which means talking about what is now (but shouldn't be) controversial. (Such as whether or not it is offensive to get married and have children, which certain Democrats DO find offensive-see above.)

I want to continue some of my observations about culture studies

As continued from last edition. The idea is that we cannot really understand a culture unless we are born into it. This seems to me to be in actuality an attempt to shield Muslims from criticism. What westerners have problems with is Coptic and Aramaic Christians being slaughtered, women being stoned to death and people being killed for questioning Islam. Now, people read fantasy such as Star Trek. In it there are Romulans, Klingons and Vulcans. These are fictional species. However, people understand and admire these artificial cultures. Certain people learn the Klingon language and dress in Klingon attire. The same is true with Middle Earth. People understand hobbits and elves-which don't really exist. We can also understand people of the past and their literature-such as the Odyssey and the Iliad and Greek myths. British culture is different from American culture and yet many Americans love the British soap opera Downton Abbey. Why is it that people can understand ancient civilizations, other civilizations such as European civilization, and people can understand fictional civilizations and fantasy civilizations-but we cannot understand Islamic civilization unless we are born into it? However, when a person converts to Islam they will be instructed in certain important beliefs-to ensure that the former Christian no longer believes in the trinity for instance. This betrays the fact that the beliefs of Islam can be studied and understood and learned by someone from a non-Muslim culture. So, the idea that someone cannot understand a different culture is obviously untrue. Besides that, Muslims often criticize Western Civilization. Shouldn't it work both ways-I mean if a westerner cannot understand Muslim culture because their culture is so different and therefore shouldn't judge it-then wouldn't it be true that someone from a Muslim culture cannot truly understand Christian civilization-and therefore shouldn't judge it either? We should study different cultures, endeavor to understand them and then analyze them-what are their strengths and weaknesses-and we should look at our own culture as well and do the same. Killing Assyrians is unjust and must be stopped. At the same time, in American culture, abortion and the attack on marriage and the family coming from Democrats is also unjust and both must be stopped.

Friday, April 6, 2012

The Seven Signs

The Seven Signs


John the Baptizer

There was a man sent from God, whose name was John. The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe.

And this is the record of John, when the Jews sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, "Who are you?" And he confessed, and did not deny; but confessed," I am not the Messiah."

And they asked him, "Who are you then? Are you Elijah?" And he said, "I am not." "Art you the "Prophet like unto Moses?" And he answered, "No."

Then said they unto him, "Then just who are you? We must give an answer to them that sent us. What do you say about yourself?"

He said, "I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Isaiah."

And they asked him, and said unto him, "Why do you baptize then, if your aren't the Christ, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?

John answered them, saying, "I baptize with water: but there stands one among you, whom you know not; He it is, who coming after me is preferred before me, whose shoe's lace I am not worthy to unloose."

These things were done in Bethabara beyond Jordan, where John was baptizing.

The next day John saw Jesus coming unto him, and said, "Behold the Lamb of God, which takes away the sin of the world. This is he of whom I said, "After me cometh a man which is preferred before me: for he was before me."  And I knew him not: but that he should be made manifest to Israel, therefore am I come baptizing with water. "

And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, "Upon whom thou shall see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizes with the Holy Ghost."  And I saw, and bare record that this is the Son of God."

Jesus acquires disciples

Again the next day after John stood, and two of his disciples;

And looking upon Jesus as he walked, he said, "Behold the Lamb of God!"

And the two disciples heard him say this, and they followed Jesus.

 Then Jesus turned, and saw them following, and said unto them, "What are you looking for?" They said unto him, "Rabbi, where do you live?"

 He said unto them, "Come and see." They came and saw where he dwelt, and abode with him that day: for it was about the tenth hour.

One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother.

He first finds his own brother Simon, and then said unto him, "We have found the Messiah!" (Which means, being interpreted, the Christ.)

And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, "You are Simon the son of Jona: you shal; be called Kaipha." (Which is by interpretation, "A stone.")

The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and Peter found Philip, and said unto him, "We have found Elijah." And he led him to Jesus and Jesus said to him, "Follow me."

Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter.

Philip found Nathanael, and said unto him, "We have found him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph."

And Nathanael said unto him, "Can there any good thing come out of Nazareth?" Philip said unto him, "Come and see."

Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said of him, "Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!"

Nathanael said unto him, "How do you know who I am?" Jesus answered and said unto him, "Before that Philip called thee, when you were under the fig tree, I saw you."

Nathanael answered and said unto him, "Rabbi, you are the Son of God; you art the King of Israel."

Jesus answered him saying, "You believe because I said that I saw you under a fig tree? You will see greater things than these! You shall see angels ascending and descending upon the Son of Man."

The First Sign: Water is changed into Wine

And the third day there was a marriage in Cana of Galilee; and the mother of Jesus was there:

 And both Jesus was called, and his disciples, to the marriage.

 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come.

 His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it.

 And there were set there six waterpots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece.

 Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with water. And they filled them up to the brim.

 And he saith unto them, Draw out now, and bear unto the governor of the feast. And they bare it.

 When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the servants which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom,

 And saith unto him, Every man at the beginning doth set forth good wine; and when men have well drunk, then that which is worse: but thou hast kept the good wine until now.

This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee, and manifested forth his glory; and his disciples believed on him.

The Second Sign: A Sick Child is Healed

After this he went down to Capernaum, he, and his mother, and his brethren, and his disciples: and they continued there not many days.

So Jesus came again into Cana of Galilee, where he made the water wine. And there was a certain nobleman, whose son was sick at Capernaum.

When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judaea into Galilee, he went unto him, and besought him that he would come down, and heal his son: for he was at the point of death.

Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not believe.

 The nobleman saith unto him, Sir, come down ere my child die.

Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way; thy son liveth. And the man believed the word that Jesus had spoken unto him, and he went his way.

And as he was now going down, his servants met him, and told him, saying, Thy son liveth.

Then enquired he of them the hour when he began to amend. And they said unto him, Yesterday at the seventh hour the fever left him.

So the father knew that it was at the same hour, in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son liveth: and himself believed, and his whole house.

This is again the second miracle that Jesus did, when he was come out of Judaea into Galilee.

The Third Sign: Jesus feeds Five Thousand

After these things Jesus went over the sea of Galilee, which is the sea of Tiberias.

And a great multitude followed him, because they saw his miracles which he did on them that were diseased.

And Jesus went up into a mountain, and there he sat with his disciples.

And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh.

When Jesus then lifted up his eyes, and saw a great company come unto him, he saith unto Philip, Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat?

And this he said to prove him: for he himself knew what he would do.

Philip answered him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not sufficient for them, that every one of them may take a little.

One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter's brother, saith unto him,

There is a lad here, which hath five barley loaves, and two small fishes: but what are they among so many?

 And Jesus said, Make the men sit down. Now there was much grass in the place. So the men sat down, in number about five thousand.

 And Jesus took the loaves; and when he had given thanks, he distributed to the disciples, and the disciples to them that were set down; and likewise of the fishes as much as they would.

 When they were filled, he said unto his disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing be lost.

 Therefore they gathered them together, and filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five barley loaves, which remained over and above unto them that had eaten.

 Then those men, when they had seen the miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that prophet that should come into the world.

The Fourth Sign: Jesus Walks Upon the Water

He departed again into a mountain himself alone.

And when even was now come, his disciples went down unto the sea,

 And entered into a ship, and went over the sea toward Capernaum. And it was now dark, and Jesus was not come to them.

 And the sea arose by reason of a great wind that blew.

 So when they had rowed about five and twenty or thirty furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea, and drawing nigh unto the ship: and they were afraid.

 But he saith unto them, It is I; be not afraid.

 Then they willingly received him into the ship: and immediately the ship was at the land whither they went.

 The day following, when the people which stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was none other boat there, save that one whereinto his disciples were entered, and that Jesus went not with his disciples into the boat, but that his disciples were gone away alone;

 (Howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias nigh unto the place where they did eat bread, after that the Lord had given thanks:)

 When the people therefore saw that Jesus was not there, neither his disciples, they also took shipping, and came to Capernaum, seeking for Jesus.

And when they had found him on the other side of the sea, they said unto him, Rabbi, when camest thou hither?

The Fifth Sign: A Blind Man sees


And as Jesus passed by, he saw a man which was blind from his birth.

And his disciples asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was born blind?

Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents: but that the works of God should be made manifest in him.

I must work the works of him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh, when no man can work.

As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world.

When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with the clay,

And said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam, (which is by interpretation, Sent.) He went his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing.

The neighbours therefore, and they which before had seen him that he was blind, said, Is not this he that sat and begged?

Some said, This is he: others said, He is like him: but he said, I am he.

Therefore said they unto him, How were thine eyes opened?

He answered and said, A man that is called Jesus made clay, and anointed mine eyes, and said unto me, Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash: and I went and washed, and I received sight.

The Sixth Sign: A Crippled Man walks


 After this there was a feast of the Jews; and Jesus went up to Jerusalem.

 Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep market a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Bethesda, having five porches.

 In these lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blind, halt, withered, waiting for the moving of the water.

 For an angel went down at a certain season into the pool, and troubled the water: whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped in was made whole of whatsoever disease he had.

 And a certain man was there, which had an infirmity thirty and eight years.

 When Jesus saw him lie, and knew that he had been now a long time in that case, he saith unto him, Wilt thou be made whole?

 The impotent man answered him, Sir, I have no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into the pool: but while I am coming, another steppeth down before me.

 Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take up thy bed, and walk.

 And immediately the man was made whole, and took up his bed, and walked

The Seventh Sign: A Dead Man is Raised to Life

And went away again beyond Jordan into the place where John at first baptized; and there he abode.

And many resorted unto him, and said, John did no miracle: but all things that John spake of this man were true.

 And many believed on him there.

Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany, the town of Mary and her sister Martha.

(It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with ointment, and wiped his feet with her hair, whose brother Lazarus was sick.)

Therefore his sisters sent unto him, saying, Lord, behold, he whom thou lovest is sick.

When Jesus heard that, he said, This sickness is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the Son of God might be glorified thereby.

Now Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus.

When he had heard therefore that he was sick, he abode two days still in the same place where he was.

Then after that saith he to his disciples, Let us go into Judaea again.

His disciples say unto him, Master, the Jews of late sought to stone thee; and goest thou thither again?

Jesus answered, Are there not twelve hours in the day? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth not, because he seeth the light of this world.

But if a man walk in the night, he stumbleth, because there is no light in him.

These things said he: and after that he saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth; but I go, that I may awake him out of sleep.

Then said his disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he shall do well.

Howbeit Jesus spake of his death: but they thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep.

Then said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is dead.

And I am glad for your sakes that I was not there, to the intent ye may believe; nevertheless let us go unto him.

Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, unto his fellowdisciples, Let us also go, that we may die with him.

Then when Jesus came, he found that he had lain in the grave four days already.

Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about fifteen furlongs off:

And many of the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother.

Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was coming, went and met him: but Mary sat still in the house.

Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.

But I know, that even now, whatsoever thou wilt ask of God, God will give it thee.

Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise again. Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.

Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:

And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die. Believest thou this?

She saith unto him, Yea, Lord: I believe that thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should come into the world.

And when she had so said, she went her way, and called Mary her sister secretly, saying, The Master is come, and calleth for thee.

As soon as she heard that, she arose quickly, and came unto him.

Now Jesus was not yet come into the town, but was in that place where Martha met him. The Jews then which were with her in the house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that she rose up hastily and went out, followed her, saying, She goeth unto the grave to weep there.

Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, and saw him, she fell down at his feet, saying unto him, Lord, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died.

When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he groaned in the spirit, and was troubled.

And said, Where have ye laid him? They said unto him, Lord, come and see.

 Jesus wept.

Then said the Jews, Behold how he loved him!

And some of them said, Could not this man, which opened the eyes of the blind, have caused that even this man should not have died?

Jesus therefore again groaning in himself cometh to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it.

Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh: for he hath been dead four days.

Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God?

Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me.

And I knew that thou hearest me always: but because of the people which stand by I said it, that they may believe that thou hast sent me.

And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth.

And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes: and his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go.

 Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, and had seen the things which Jesus did, believed on him.

But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done.

 Then gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, and said, What do we? for this man doeth many miracles.

If we let him thus alone, all men will believe on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both our place and nation.

 And one of them, named Caiaphas, being the high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye know nothing at all,

Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that one man should die for the people, and that the whole nation perish not.

And this spake he not of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should die for that nation;

And not for that nation only, but that also he should gather together in one the children of God that were scattered abroad.

Nicodemas (he who came to Jesus by night, being one of them) said to them, "Does our law judge a man before it hears him and knows what he is doing?" They answered and said to him, "Are you also from Galilee? Search the scriptures and look, for no prophet has arisen out of Galilee."

Then from that day forth they took counsel together for to put him to death.

Mary anoints Jesus

Jesus therefore walked no more openly among the Jews; but went thence unto a country near to the wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there continued with his disciples. Then Jesus six days before the passover came to Bethany, where Lazarus was, which had been dead, whom he raised from the dead.

There they made him a supper; and Martha served: but Lazarus was one of them that sat at the table with him.

Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and wiped his feet with her hair: and the house was filled with the odour of the ointment.

Then saith one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, which should betray him,

Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor?

This he said, not that he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare what was put therein. Then said Jesus, Let her alone: against the day of my burying hath she kept this.

For the poor always ye have with you; but me ye have not always. Much people of the Jews therefore knew that he was there: and they came not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might see Lazarus also, whom he had raised from the dead.

But the chief priests consulted that they might put Lazarus also to death;

Because that by reason of him many of the Jews went away, and believed on Jesus.

The Triumphal Entry

And the Jews' passover was nigh at hand: and many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before the passover, to purify themselves.

Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, that he will not come to the feast?

And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. On the next day much people that were come to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming to Jerusalem,

 Took branches of palm trees, and went forth to meet him, and cried, Hosanna: Blessed is the King of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord.

 And Jesus, when he had found a young ass, sat thereon; as it is written,

 Fear not, daughter of Sion: behold, thy King cometh, sitting on an ass's colt.

These things understood not his disciples at the first: but when Jesus was glorified, then remembered they that these things were written of him, and that they had done these things unto him.

The people therefore that was with him when he called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him from the dead, bare record.

For this cause the people also met him, for that they heard that he had done this miracle.

The Pharisees therefore said among themselves, Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, the world is gone after him.

The Cleansing of the Temple

And found in the temple those that sold oxen and sheep and doves, and the changers of money sitting:

And when he had made a scourge of small cords, he drove them all out of the temple, and the sheep, and the oxen; and poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tables;

And said unto them that sold doves, Take these things hence; make not my Father's house an house of merchandise.

And his disciples remembered that it was written, The zeal of thine house hath eaten me up.

Then answered the Jews and said unto him, What sign shewest thou unto us, seeing that thou doest these things?

Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.

Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt thou rear it up in three days?

But he spake of the temple of his body.

When therefore he was risen from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this unto them; and they believed the scripture, and the word which Jesus had said. And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified.

Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit.

He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this world shall keep it unto life eternal.

If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honour.

Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour.

Father, glorify thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.

The people therefore, that stood by, and heard it, said that it thundered: others said, An angel spake to him.

Jesus answered and said, This voice came not because of me, but for your sakes.

Now is the judgment of this world: now shall the prince of this world be cast out.

And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men unto me.

This he said, signifying what death he should die.

The people answered him, We have heard out of the law that Christ abideth for ever: and how sayest thou, The Son of man must be lifted up? who is this Son of man?

Then Jesus said unto them, Yet a little while is the light with you. Walk while ye have the light, lest darkness come upon you: for he that walketh in darkness knoweth not whither he goeth.

While ye have light, believe in the light, that ye may be the children of light.

The Disbelief of the Judeans

These things spake Jesus, and departed, and did hide himself from them.

But though he had done so many miracles before them, yet they believed not on him:

That the saying of Esaias the prophet might be fulfilled, which he spake, Lord, who hath believed our report? and to whom hath the arm of the Lord been revealed?

 Therefore they could not believe, because that Esaias said again,

He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they should not see with their eyes, nor understand with their heart, and be converted, and I should heal them.

 These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory, and spake of him.

 Nevertheless among the chief rulers also many believed on him; but because of the Pharisees they did not confess him, lest they should be put out of the synagogue:

 For they loved the praise of men more than the praise of God.


Now when he was in Jerusalem at the passover, in the feast day, many believed in his name, when they saw the miracles which he did.

But Jesus did not commit himself unto them, because he knew all men,

And needed not that any should testify of man: for he knew what was in man

There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews:

The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these signs that thou doest, except God be with him.

Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.

Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother's womb, and be born?

Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.

That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again.

The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit. Nicodemus answered and said unto him, How can these things be?

Jesus answered and said unto him, Art thou a master of Israel, and knowest not these things?

Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that we have seen; and ye receive not our witness.

If I have told you earthly things, and ye believe not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things?

The Son of Man has come down from Heaven and as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of man be lifted up:

That whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.

For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.

For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved.

Jesus washes his disciples feet

Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.

And supper being ended, the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him;

Jesus knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he was come from God, and went to God;

He riseth from supper, and laid aside his garments; and took a towel, and girded himself.

After that he poureth water into a bason, and began to wash the disciples' feet, and to wipe them with the towel wherewith he was girded.

Then cometh he to Simon Peter: and Peter saith unto him, Lord, dost thou wash my feet?

Jesus answered and said unto him, What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter. Peter saith unto him, Thou shalt never wash my feet. Jesus answered him, If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. Simon Peter saith unto him, Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head.

 Jesus saith to him, He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit: and ye are clean, but not all.

For he knew who should betray him; therefore said he, Ye are not all clean.

So after he had washed their feet, and had taken his garments, and was set down again, he said unto them, Know ye what I have done to you?

 Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am.

If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; ye also ought to wash one another's feet.

For I have given you an example, that ye should do as I have done to you.

 Verily, verily, I say unto you, The servant is not greater than his lord; neither he that is sent greater than he that sent him.

If ye know these things, happy are ye if ye do them.

I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but that the scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his heel against me.

Now I tell you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, ye may believe that I am he.

Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that receiveth whomsoever I send receiveth me; and he that receiveth me receiveth him that sent me.

"One of you shall betray me"

When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in spirit, and testified, and said, Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.

 Then the disciples looked one on another, doubting of whom he spake.

Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved.

Simon Peter therefore beckoned to him, that he should ask who it should be of whom he spake.

He then lying on Jesus' breast saith unto him, Lord, who is it?

Jesus answered, He it is, to whom I shall give a sop, when I have dipped it. And when he had dipped the sop, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon.

And after the sop Satan entered into him. Then said Jesus unto him, That thou doest, do quickly.

Now no man at the table knew for what intent he spake this unto him.

For some of them thought, because Judas had the bag, that Jesus had said unto him, Buy those things that we have need of against the feast; or, that he should give something to the poor.

He then having received the sop went immediately out: and it was night.

Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in him.

If God be glorified in him, God shall also glorify him in himself, and shall straightway glorify him.

Little children, yet a little while I am with you. Ye shall seek me: and as I said unto the Jews, Whither I go, ye cannot come; so now I say to you.

A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another.

By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.

Simon Peter said unto him, Lord, whither goest thou? Jesus answered him, Whither I go, thou canst not follow me now; but thou shalt follow me afterwards.

Peter said unto him, Lord, why cannot I follow thee now? I will lay down my life for thy sake.

Jesus answered him, Wilt thou lay down thy life for my sake? Verily, verily, I say unto thee, The cock shall not crow, till thou hast denied me thrice.

Jesus is arrested

When Jesus had spoken these words, he went forth with his disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which he entered, and his disciples.

And Judas also, which betrayed him, knew the place: for Jesus ofttimes resorted thither with his disciples.

Judas then, having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons.

Jesus therefore, knowing all things that should come upon him, went forth, and said unto them, Whom seek ye?

They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth. Jesus saith unto them, I am he. And Judas also, which betrayed him, stood with them.

As soon then as he had said unto them, I am he, they went backward, and fell to the ground.

Then asked he them again, Whom seek ye? And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.

Jesus answered, I have told you that I am he: if therefore ye seek me, let these go their way:

That the saying might be fulfilled, which he spake, Of them which thou gavest me have I lost none.

 Then Simon Peter having a sword drew it, and smote the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear. The servant's name was Malchus.

 Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?

 Then the band and the captain and officers of the Jews took Jesus, and bound him,

Jesus stands trial before Annas and Peter denies Christ

 And led him away to Annas first; for he was father in law to Caiaphas, which was the high priest that same year.

Now Caiaphas was he, which gave counsel to the Jews, that it was expedient that one man should die for the people.

And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest.

But Peter stood at the door without. Then went out that other disciple, which was known unto the high priest, and spake unto her that kept the door, and brought in Peter.

Then saith the damsel that kept the door unto Peter, Art not thou also one of this man's disciples? He saith, I am not.

And the servants and officers stood there, who had made a fire of coals; for it was cold: and they warmed themselves: and Peter stood with them, and warmed himself.

The high priest then asked Jesus of his disciples, and of his doctrine.

 Jesus answered him, I spake openly to the world; I ever taught in the synagogue, and in the temple, whither the Jews always resort; and in secret have I said nothing.

Why askest thou me? ask them which heard me, what I have said unto them: behold, they know what I said.

 And when he had thus spoken, one of the officers which stood by struck Jesus with the palm of his hand, saying, Answerest thou the high priest so?

 Jesus answered him, If I have spoken evil, bear witness of the evil: but if well, why smitest thou me?

 Now Annas had sent him bound unto Caiaphas the high priest.

 And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. They said therefore unto him, Art not thou also one of his disciples? He denied it, and said, I am not.

 One of the servants of the high priest, being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him?

 Peter then denied again: and immediately the cock crew.

Jesus appears before Pilate

 Then led they Jesus from Caiaphas unto the hall of judgment: and it was early; and they themselves went not into the judgment hall, lest they should be defiled; but that they might eat the passover.

 Pilate then went out unto them, and said, What accusation bring ye against this man?

 They answered and said unto him, If he were not a malefactor, we would not have delivered him up unto thee.

 Then said Pilate unto them, Take ye him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews therefore said unto him, It is not lawful for us to put any man to death:

 That the saying of Jesus might be fulfilled, which he spake, signifying what death he should die.

 Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews?

 Jesus answered him, Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell it thee of me?

 Pilate answered, Am I a Jew? Thine own nation and the chief priests have delivered thee unto me: what hast thou done?

 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.

 Pilate therefore said unto him, Art thou a king then? Jesus answered, Thou sayest that I am a king. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I into the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Every one that is of the truth heareth my voice.

 Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? And when he had said this, he went out again unto the Jews, and saith unto them, I find in him no fault at all.

 But ye have a custom, that I should release unto you one at the passover: will ye therefore that I release unto you the King of the Jews?

 Then cried they all again, saying, Not this man, but Barabbas. Now Barabbas was a robber.

Then Pilate therefore took Jesus, and scourged him.

And the soldiers platted a crown of thorns, and put it on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,

And said, Hail, King of the Jews! and they smote him with their hands.

Pilate therefore went forth again, and saith unto them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that ye may know that I find no fault in him.

Then came Jesus forth, wearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe. And Pilate saith unto them, Behold the man!

When the chief priests therefore and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Take ye him, and crucify him: for I find no fault in him.

The Jews answered him, We have a law, and by our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of God.

When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid;

And went again into the judgment hall, and saith unto Jesus, Whence art thou? But Jesus gave him no answer.

Then saith Pilate unto him, Speakest thou not unto me? knowest thou not that I have power to crucify thee, and have power to release thee?

Jesus answered, Thou couldest have no power at all against me, except it were given thee from above: therefore he that delivered me unto thee hath the greater sin.

 And from thenceforth Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If thou let this man go, thou art not Caesar's friend: whosoever maketh himself a king speaketh against Caesar.

 When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he brought Jesus forth, and sat down in the judgment seat in a place that is called the Pavement, but in the Hebrew, Gabbatha.

 And it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour: and he saith unto the Jews, Behold your King!

 But they cried out, Away with him, away with him, crucify him. Pilate saith unto them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

Jesus is crucified

Then delivered he him therefore unto them to be crucified. And they took Jesus, and led him away.

 And he bearing his cross went forth into a place called the place of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew Golgotha:

 Where they crucified him, and two other with him, on either side one, and Jesus in the midst.

 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.

 This title then read many of the Jews: for the place where Jesus was crucified was nigh to the city: and it was written in Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin.

 Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, The King of the Jews; but that he said, I am King of the Jews.

 Pilate answered, What I have written I have written.

 Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part; and also his coat: now the coat was without seam, woven from the top throughout.

 They said therefore among themselves, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: that the scripture might be fulfilled, which saith, They parted my raiment among them, and for my vesture they did cast lots. These things therefore the soldiers did.

 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

 When Jesus therefore saw his mother, and the disciple standing by, whom he loved, he saith unto his mother, Woman, behold thy son!

 Then saith he to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home.

 After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst.

 Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth.

 When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

 The Jews therefore, because it was the preparation, that the bodies should not remain upon the cross on the sabbath day, (for that sabbath day was an high day,) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.

Then came the soldiers, and brake the legs of the first, and of the other which was crucified with him.

But when they came to Jesus, and saw that he was dead already, they brake not his legs:

 But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and forthwith came there out blood and water.

 And he that saw it bare record, and his record is true: and he knoweth that he saith true, that ye might believe.

 For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

 And again another scripture saith, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

And after this Joseph of Arimathaea, being a disciple of Jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews, besought Pilate that he might take away the body of Jesus: and Pilate gave him leave. He came therefore, and took the body of Jesus.

 And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight.

 Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices, as the manner of the Jews is to bury.

 Now in the place where he was crucified there was a garden; and in the garden a new sepulchre, wherein was never man yet laid.

 There laid they Jesus therefore because of the Jews' preparation day; for the sepulchre was nigh at hand.

The Resurrection

The first day of the week cometh Mary Magdalene early, when it was yet dark, unto the sepulchre, and seeth the stone taken away from the sepulchre.

 Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, and to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They have taken away the LORD out of the sepulchre, and we know not where they have laid him.

 Peter therefore went forth, and that other disciple, and came to the sepulchre.

 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre.

 And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet went he not in.

 Then cometh Simon Peter following him, and went into the sepulchre, and seeth the linen clothes lie,

 And the napkin, that was about his head, not lying with the linen clothes, but wrapped together in a place by itself.

 Then went in also that other disciple, which came first to the sepulchre, and he saw, and believed.

 For as yet they knew not the scripture, that he must rise again from the dead.

 Then the disciples went away again unto their own home.

 But Mary stood without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down, and looked into the sepulchre,

 And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.

 And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto them, Because they have taken away my LORD, and I know not where they have laid him.

 And when she had thus said, she turned herself back, and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus.

 Jesus saith unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, supposing him to be the gardener, saith unto him, Sir, if thou have borne him hence, tell me where thou hast laid him, and I will take him away.

 Jesus saith unto her, Mary. She turned herself, and saith unto him, Rabboni; which is to say, Master.

 Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God, and your God.

 Mary Magdalene came and told the disciples that she had seen the LORD, and that he had spoken these things unto her.

 Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.

 And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands and his side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the LORD.

 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as my Father hath sent me, even so send I you.

 And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost:

 Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.

 But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.

 The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the LORD. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.

 And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.

 Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.

 And Thomas answered and said unto him, My LORD and my God.

 Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.


And truly many other signs did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book:

But these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing ye might have life through his name.